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Early history[ edit ] The oldest cotton textiles were found in graves and city ruins of civilizations from dry climates, where the fabrics did not decay completely.
Seeds and cordage dating to about BCE have been found in Peru. The Indian version of the dual-roller gin was prevalent throughout the Mediterranean cotton trade by the 16th century. This mechanical device was, in some areas, driven by water power.
Cotton manufacture was introduced to Europe during the Muslim conquest of the Iberian Peninsula and Sicily. The knowledge of cotton weaving was spread to northern Italy in the 12th century, when Sicily was conquered by the Normansand consequently to the rest of Europe.
The spinning wheelintroduced to Europe circaimproved the speed of cotton spinning. Sources such as Marco Polo, who traveled India in the 13th century, Chinese travelers, who traveled Buddhist pilgrim centers earlier, Vasco Da Gama, who entered Calicut inand Tavernier, who visited India in the 17th century, have praised the superiority of Indian fabrics.
The diffusion of the spinning wheel, and the incorporation of the worm gear and crank handle into the roller cotton gin, led to greatly expanded Indian cotton textile production during the Mughal era.
With a modified Forbes version, one man and a boy could produce pounds per day. If oxen were used to power 16 of these machines, and a few people's labour was used to feed them, they could produce as much work as people did formerly.
During the early 16th century to the early 18th century, Indian cotton production increased, in terms of both raw cotton and cotton textiles.
The Mughals introduced agrarian reforms such as a new revenue system that was biased in favour of higher value cash crops such as cotton and indigoproviding state incentives to grow cash crops, in addition to rising market demand.
The cotton textile industry was responsible for a large part of the empire's international trade. Indian craftspeople had long protected the secret of how to create colourful patterns.
However, some converted to Christianity and their secret was revealed by a French Catholic priest, Father Coeurdoux — He revealed the process of creating the fabrics in France, which assisted the European textile industry. The trade imbalance caused Europeans to export large quantities of gold and silver to Mughal India in order to pay for South Asian imports.
Egypt under Muhammad Ali Egypt under Muhammad Ali in the early 19th century had the fifth most productive cotton industry in the world, in terms of the number of spindles per capita. Textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution East India Company[ edit ] Cotton's rise to global importance came about as a result of the cultural transformation of Europe and Britain's trading empire.
Wool continued to dominate the European markets, but cotton prints were introduced to Britain by the East India Company in the s. By these calicoes threatened British manufacturers, and Parliament passed the Calico Act that banned calicoes for clothing or domestic purposes.
In the act was repealed with the invention of machines that allowed for British manufacturers to compete with Eastern fabrics. In order to compete with India, Britain invested in labour-saving technical progress, while implementing protectionist policies such as bans and tariffs to restrict Indian imports.
British cotton products were successful in European markets, constituting Britain's success was also due to its trade with its own colonies, whose settlers maintained British identities, and thus, fashions.Indian economy.
At the beginning of the 18th Century, India's share of the world economy was 23%, as large as all of Europe put together. By the time the British departed India, it had dropped to.
A modest beginning for a company that was to grow in the following yr. into one of India's largest producer of textiles. Sir Sobha Singh How was the life in India under the British rule? What was life like in British India?
Read this article to learn about Industrial Development in India during the British Rule: 1. Subject Matter of Industrial Development 2. Early Efforts of Industrialisation 3.
Industries in the Inter-War Period () 4. Industries during 5. Reasons for Low Industrial Development in India. Subject Matter of Industrial Development: Underdeveloped countries are greatly handicapped by.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK, or Britain) is a state located off the northwestern coast of mainland Europe.
It comprises the island of Great Britain, the north-east part of the island of Ireland and many small islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the UK with a land border, sharing it with the Republic of Ireland.
Indian Economy During British Rule! India was rich in economy, culture and polity. But it was due to advent of foreigners that it gradually got pushed into backwardness.
This is what is believed by most of the Indian national scholars. However, most British scholars attribute economic stagnation.
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