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Lerche III We live in a world that is simultaneously shrinking and expanding, growing closer and farther apart National borders are increasingly irrelevant.
And yet globalism is by no means triumphant. Tribalisms of all kinds flourish. Irredentism abounds Attali, Because of the great increase in the traffic in culture, the large-scale transfer of meaning systems and symbolic forms, the world is increasingly becoming one not only in political and economic terms This, however, is no egalitarian global village Hannerz, The pace of global change is extremely rapid, and even those trained to track and analyze it have difficulty keeping up with new developments.
However, trends are regularly observed and named, and these new terms become "buzz words" in the lexicons of governments, academia and the media. Such a term is globalization.
Though it is, admittedly, rather vague, and the phenomena it is employed to describe extremely diverse, it does express a prevailing sentiment at century's end that our lives are increasingly influenced by forces which have transcended borders, and which, precisely because of their scope and power, are changing, irreversibly, life on this planet.
All levels of society are being reshaped by this process: At the moment there is a serious contradiction between the fact that globalization is in full swing, and the fact that existing processes of global governance lack sufficient power, authority and scope to regulate and direct this process toward beneficial ends.
As a result globalization is often disruptive and inequitable in its effects.
It has also posed new challenges for existing public institutions while at the same time weakening their autonomy and support; and, paradoxically, provided the means for those it excludes culturally or economically to organize against its subordinating and homogenizing force.
Many analysts have pointed to the turbulent nature of this planetary process and to the increasing frequency Critically assess the argument that advances variety of reactions to it.
Drawing on this literature, this paper first attempts to clarify various aspects of globalization and then considers its potential for generating social conflict and unrest.
Subsequently, human needs theory, as developed and applied by John Burton, is used to explore some of the roots of these conflicts and, finally, globalism is put forth as a positive, and potentially corrective, dimension of globalization.
A Closer Look Definitions There are a variety of definitions and descriptions of globalization, which, though overlapping in many respects, do emphasize different dimensions of the process. Robertson's is one of the first and the most general: Globalization as a concept refers both to the compression of the world and intensification of consciousness of the world as a whole Anthony Giddens's adds an important dimension to the picture by emphasizing the interactive, or dialectical dimensions of the process: Globalization can thus be defined as the intensification of worldwide social relations which link distant localities in such a way that local happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away and vice versa.
This is a dialectical process because such local happenings may move in an obverse direction from the very distanced relations that shape them.
Local transformation is as much a part of globalisation as the lateral extension of social connections across time and space Giddens, However, it is in regard to business and economics that the term "globalization" is most frequently invoked.
What is referred to here is: The primary vehicles for this process have been the increasing transnationalization of production, and the resulting rise in influence of multinational enterprises, and even more importantly, the explosion in the volume and scope of transactions on international financial markets.
In this regard, consider the following commentary on contemporary change in the banking industry: Banking is rapidly becoming indifferent to the constraints of time, place and currency And one of its most often noted effects is the homogenization of consumer markets around the world, at least in certain areas--the so-called "McDonaldization" of global consumption.
Critiques Though often touted as representing the height of economic rationality, globalization has also been portrayed as having a very dark side.
Critics repeatedly point out that the contemporary form of globalizationdriven by economic power, clearly promotes the hegemony of Western culture and corporations; puts jobs and communities at risk in the rich countries and exploits cheap labor in the poorer countries; increases threats to the environment; and undermines the foundations of democracy and social stability by subjecting national political institutions to forces of economic change beyond their control.
It produces concentrations and deprivations which, in the aggregate, constitute an increasingly well-defined global power structure. Claude Ake, a leading African critical thinker, has argued in this regard that: Economic forces are constituting the world into one economy and, to a lesser extent, one political society.
Nations participate in global governance according to their economic power, which is coextensive with their rights.
The global order is ruled by an informal cabinet of the world's economically most powerful countries; its law is the logic of the market, and status in this new order is a function of economic performance Ake, Critics also argue that there is a neo-liberal ideology of globalization which serves to "normalize" the process - to make it seem natural, inevitable and beneficial.
Thus, while it is clearly in the particular interest of big multinational and global corporations to be free to move money, factories and goods around the planet seeking access to the cheapest factors of production, the most congenial regulatory environments and the most lucrative markets, the ideology of globalization promotes the belief that the interests of humanity and even of the earth itself will also be best served if world markets are ".
Greater income inequality is not the only social failure generated by the success of globalization generally and by NAFTA particularly.
Environmental destruction is surely exacerbated with the success of globalization.Critically assess Wittgenstein s belief that language games allow religious statements to have meaning 35 Wittgenstein s language games refer to the theory.
Try to get into the habit of writing critically, by making sure that you read critically, and that you include critique in your writing. Stringing together of quotes. It can be tempting to string together quotes to support an argument, feeling that the more quotes you include, the stronger your argument.
Critically assess the effects of corporate separate personality. The fundamental concept of corporate separate personality recognises that a company, once incorporated, becomes a ‘body corporate’, i.e.
a legal entity distinct from its members and officers. The various effects of corporate.
Such advances in global collective action could be seen as harbingers of similar initiatives in other areas. However, Rosenau's "global authority crisis"should be kept in mind. The average people around the world increasingly feel they have suffered from economic globalization, and they are increasingly doubtful about the wisdom and motivation.
Restate and critically assess the three efficiency related justifications for from MGMT at York University Restate and critically assess the three efficiency-related justifications for unequal wages or Social entity model or Stakeholder model Externalities The Let-Government-Do-It Argument The Business-Can’t-Handle-It Argument.
every argument supports its conclusion by making a double claim: (a) that its premises are true and (b) that its premises support its conclusion.
Thus, every argument supports its conclusion by claiming that the argument is sound. To assess an argument, then, is to determine if claims (a) and (b) are true.