With the rise of Islam in the seventh century A. Over time the Arab identity lost its purely ethnic roots as millions in the Middle East and North Africa adopted the Arabic language and integrated Arab culture with that of their own. It embraces numerous national and regional groups as well as many non-Muslim religious minorities.
The domination was demonstrated through the Colonialism which gave different dimension to the connotation of Orientalism from a solid academic orientation as it general be in Germany and some other European countries, to the political dimension of Western Imperialism. This viewpoint was most notably popularized by Edward Said in his controversial book Orientalism, which was addressed to criticize the current trend of Orientalists and Orientalism, with the Princeton University professor Bernard Lewis, as the main subject.
For this reason, it is not easy to find among the Muslims who response to the Orientalism in an objective and academic manner. Orientalism became a taboo to them which led to the extensive approach of generalizing all those whom their views are against Islamic values to be considered as Orientalists.
In general, the common response from Muslims is in the language of victim and defensive manner. In order for us to do justice to the discussion, we would like to suggest the Muslim response to Orientalism to be divided into two major categories: Response given by Muslim scholars and preachers and other prominent figures from the background of Islamic Studies.
Response given by Muslim scholars and other influential figures from the background of Human Sciences and other disciplines outside the field of Islamic Studies. This categorization is not intended to generalize the many type of Muslim responses but more or less, to offer a better treatment to the subject within the limit.
Muslim scholars from the background of the Islamic Studies were very much bothered by the fact that many of the Orientalists gave the wrong presentation of Islam from their study.
This was due to the fact that the Orientalists were trying to express Islam within their own understanding which might not be compatible with the dualism of Islam world view.
Either the shortcoming emerged from their lack of appropriate methodology to study Islam, or simply because of the devilish idea against Islam. Due to this reason, we found that Muslim scholars were in general gave a strong rejection against Orientalism.
This idea is very much accepted by the preachers and laymen because they were observing the social and intellectual illness occurred among the Muslim society members, which Orientalism fits the criteria to take the blame.
Many viewed Orientalism in a more objective way and carefully distinguish the Orientalists who served the colonial authorities and those who study the East simply because of their admiration to the neighboring civilizations.
This is also due to the fact that many of the contemporary Human Sciences disciplines like psychology, sociology, anthropology and history emerged from the tradition of the West. Orientalism as an academic discourse which claimed by Bernard Lewis to be emerged from the humanism tradition of the Enlightenment, is more familiar to the Muslim social scientists compared to those who solely came from the background of Islamic Revealed Knowledge.
Maryam Jamilah as a figure for us to study within the subject, would be suggested to be among the first category of Muslim responses towards Orientalism as due to her association with the Muslims in Pakistan after her acceptance of Islam.
Comprehensive survey of the history of Western Orientalism from its beginnings to the present, including a critique of Edward Said's Orientalism thesis. Kerr, Malcolm H., ed. Islamic Studies: A . The Story of Race, Understanding Race, American Anthropological Association, July 13, Since the horrific terrorist attacks on the United States on September 11, , Security concerns have understandably increased, but so too has racial profiling, discrimination etc. The expected increase of the Muslim population in France (from percent in to percent in ), our research suggests, will not improve anti-Muslim prejudice, other factors remaining constant. Discrimination Evident in the Workplace. The anti-Muslim discrimination we .
Even though she recognized some of the positive sides of Orientalism, but many or the majority of her works would fall within the first category. She gave the most unsympathetic treatment against the Orientalism which can be viewed from many of her writing such as Islam and Orientalism, Islam Versus the West and others.
Her ancestry was Germany and her great grandparents had migrated from Germany between until seeking brighter economic opportunity.
Although of Jewish origin, she claimed that neither of her both parents were observant and their Jewishness being purely nominal.
Maryam Jamilah accepted the invitation. They were granted 4 children. Not like the particular practice among the Pakistani women of that time, Maryam Jamilah did not limit herself to concentrate on her private life but she actively continues her writing.
She made clear in her introduction of the book, that the reason she wrote the book was to help rescue the modern educated Muslims from the fallacy of accepting these unscrupulous scholars as the supreme authorities on Islam.
She also admitted that her book was intended to show the Muslim reader how the West sees us Muslims. Firstly, Maryam Jamilah did not reject the tradition of Orientalism as a whole.
She acknowledged some positive contributions produced by some Orientalists.
Is Orientalism then totally evil? The answer is a qualified no. A few outstanding Western scholars have devoted their lives to Islamic studies because of their sincere interests in them. Were it not for their industry, much valuable knowledge found in ancient Islamic manuscripts would have been lost or lying forgotten in obscurity.
English Orientalists like the late Reynold Nicholson and the late Arthur Arberry accomplished notable work in field of translating classics of Islamic literature and making them available to the general reader for the first time in a European language.
In this case, Maryam Jamilah appreciated the work of European Orientalists like Nicholson and Arberry who were far from the colonialization interest. Maryam Jamilah suggested that Orientalists do their best work in the field of translation.1) according to pyne, how have post government responses affected prejudice and discrimination against muslims,arabs,and related groups?
(2) List two to three characteristics of orientalism. How may orientalism and prejudice contribute to hate crimes against these groups. Characteristics of Orientalism, Prejudice and Discrimination * Explain the difference between Muslims and Arabs. The difference between Muslims and Arabs are that Arabs are an ethnic group coming from Arabic countries that speak Arabic.
Muslims are a religious group; Islam is the faith Muslims. A Pew Research Center survey conducted in asked Americans to rate members of nine religious groups on a “feeling thermometer” from 0 to , where 0 reflects the coldest, most negative possible rating and the warmest, most positive rating.
Overall, Americans gave Muslims an average rating of 48 degrees, similar to atheists (50). Early representations of Arabs and Muslims in Hollywood productions were largely drawn from the literary works of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
They, in turn, were inspired by depictions found in Elizabethan manuscripts, which took their cue from the Middle Ages. With a sermon title like this, you’d think it was Valentine’s Day! But that’s still a couple of weeks off. Or, maybe you think I’m going to talk about an old “Huey Lewis and the News” song from the s.
As we look at this passage, which depicts Jesus’ conflict with family sandwiching a conflict with the religious leaders over Jesus’ authority, whether it comes from God or Satan, we need to remember that this is the first mention of family in Mark’s gospel.